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Further compartments additional to the atmosphere and the ocean need to be included in climate models to simulate interactions on long time scales. The cryospere is a particularly vulnerable component of the Earth system.

Sea Ice Leads High resolution simulation of the northern hemispheric sea ice development 1985-2014: Sea ice is an important component of the Earth System, which is often being discussed in terms of integrated quantities such as sea ice extent and volume. Sea ice deformation characteristics such as leads, on the other hand, have attracted relatively little attention thus far.

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Greenland in the Greenhouse In the event that Greenhouse Gas Emissions continue to rise unrestrictedly throughout the next decades, their concentrations could reach a multiple of the pre-industrial value. In the long run, a decline in Greenland’s inland ice cap would be inevitable, with its melt water contributing to the sea level which would already rise due to the effect of the warming and expanding sea water.

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Heinrich Events Based on simulations with a coupled ice sheet - climate model, Heinrich events were studied. Heinrich events are large-scale climate change events of the last ice age. The model was forced with boundary conditions matching the last glacial maximum (21 000 years ago).

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